Levels of Belief in Qadar - ملتقى الشفاء الإسلامي

 

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افتراضي Levels of Belief in Qadar

Levels of Belief in Qadar

Dr. Bilal Philips


Evidence for belief in Qadar[1] can be found in the following statements of Allah,
the Most High:
“Allah’s command is a determined decree.” (Soorah al-Ahzaab, 33: 38)[2]
“That Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained (in His Knowledge).” (Soorah al-Anfaal, 8: 42)[3]
“Allah’s command must be fulfilled.” (Soorah al-Ahzaab, 33: 37)[4]
“No calamity befalls but by the decision of Allah. And Allah will guide the heart of whoever believes in Him.” (Soorah at-Taghaabun, 64: 11)[5]
“What you suffered on the day the two armies met was by the leave of Allah.” (Soorah Aal ‘Imraan, 3: 166)[6]
“Those who when afflicted with calamity, say: ‘Indeed! To Allah we belong and to Him we will return.’ They are those on whom are the praises from their Lord, and receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided ones.” (Soorah al-Baqarah, 2: 156-7)[7]
Evidence can also be found in the hadeeth of Gabriel in which the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said:
“And you believe in the divine decree, its good and bad.”[8]
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) also said:
“Know that whatever has befallen you could never have missed you, and that which missed you could never have befallen you.”[9]
And he was also narrated as saying:
“If something befalls you do not say, ‘If only I had done this, such and such would have happened.’ Instead say, ‘It is the decree of Allah and He does whatever He wills.’ ”[10]
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) was also reported to have said:
“Everything occurs by decree, even inability and capability.”[11]
And there are many other similar narrations.

[1] Qadar, coming from the root qadara (evaluate), may be defined as Allah’s predestination of everything for His creation in accordance with His prior knowledge (Believing in Qadar, p. 8); it is Allah’s decree or decision as in the verse:
“Indeed, I have created all things according to predestined proportions [Qadar].” (Soorah al-Qamar, 54: 49)
Also derived from the same root is the word Qadr (amount) from which Laylatul-Qadr (the night in which Allah sends down His annual decree and decides the amounts of all things relating to His creation) comes. It is synonymous to Qadar in this context. The Divine Names al-Qaadir (Most Able), al-Qadeer (All-Powerful) and al-Muqtadir (Omnipotent) are all derived from the root.
Qadaa (decision) is the implementation of Allah’s decree (Al-Mufradaat, p. 406) as in the verse: “When He decrees a matter, He only says to it: ‘Be!’ - and it is.” (Soorah al-Baqarah, 2: 117)
Some scholars like Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalaanee held the opposite view. He said, “The scholars say that Qadaa is the general decree from eternity, and Qadar refers to the details of that decree and how they are implemented.” (Fat’hul-Baaree, vol. 11, p. 477 & 149) The overwhelmingly accepted position makes Qadaa the universal, general eternal decree, and Qadar the individual development or application of that in time. (The Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 199)
When the terms Qadar and Qadaa are mentioned separately they are synonymous but when mentioned together, Qadar means the predestination and when what is predestined occurs it is called Qadaa. (Majmoo’al-Fataawaa, vol. 2, pp. 79-80)


[2] This verse concerns the incident of the Prophet’s adopted son, Zayd ibn al-Haarithah’s divorce from the Prophet’s cousin, Zaynab, and the Prophet’s subsequent marriage to her. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) tried to avoid and hide Zayd’s marital problems from the community, however it occurred.
“Allah’s command is a determined decree,” means that Allah’s command which He has decreed must inevitably come to pass; nothing can prevent it or avert it, for whatever He wills happens, and whatever He does not decree, does not happen. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 7, p. 699)

[3] The Battle of Badr was not planned. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his companions had set out to capture a Makkan caravan, but found themselves instead confronted with an army of Makkans more than three times their number. This verse affirms that Allah decreed that He would bring glory to Islam and its supporters in the Battle of Badr, while disgracing idolatry and its people. The companions had no knowledge of what would happen. It was out of Allah’s compassion that He did that.” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 4, p. 324)

[4] Allah explained that the Prophet’s marriage to his cousin Zaynab bint Jahsh was to break the taboo on marrying the ex-wives of adopted sons. Though Allah had put a stop to adoption earlier, saying: “He has not made your adopted sons your real sons.” (Soorah Al-Ahzaab, 33:4)
The marriage to Zaynab further confirmed and clarified the implications. The interpretation of “Allah’s command must be fulfilled,” is that the divorce and subsequent marriage was predestined and decreed by Allah and was, therefore, inevitable. Allah knew that Zaynab would become one of the Prophet’s wives and had destined it. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 7, p. 699)


[5] Another similar verse also addresses the issue of destiny: “Every calamity which strikes on the earth or in yourselves is inscribed in the Book of Decrees before I bring it into existence. Indeed, that is easy for Allah.” (Soorah al-Hadeed, 57: 22)
In this case, “No calamity befalls but by the decision of Allah. And Allah will guide the heart of whoever believes in Him,” means that whoever suffered an affliction and knew that it occurred by Allah’s judgment and decree, and he patiently abides, awaiting Allah’s reward, then Allah will guide his heart, and will compensate him for his loss in this life by granting guidance to his heart and certainty in faith. Allah will ******* whatever he lost with something similar or something better. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 10, pp. 24-5)

[6] The verse: “What you suffered on the day the two armies met was by the leave of Allah [in order that He might test the believers,]” is in reference to the Battle of Uhud when the archers disobeyed the Messenger’s instructions and abandoned their positions in a scramble for the booty. Khaalid ibn al-Waleed led a pagan counter-attack from the rear which caught the Muslims by surprise and they ran. Many were killed and injured. The dead included the Prophet’s uncle Hamzah and the injured included the Prophet (Peace be upon him) himself whose tooth was knocked out. All of this occurred by Allah’s will and decree based on His perfect wisdom. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 2, pp. 315-6)

[7] “Those who when afflicted with calamity, say: ‘Indeed! To Allah we belong and to Him we will return.’ They are those on whom are the praises from their Lord, and receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided ones,” meaning that those who recite this statement to comfort themselves in the face of their loss, know that they belong to Allah and that He does what He wills with His servants. They also know that nothing and not deed, even if it was the weight of an atom, will be lost with Allah on the Day of Resurrection. These facts thus compel them to admit that they are Allah’s servants and that their return will be to Him in the Hereafter. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 1, pp. 445-6)
The evidence for Qadar in this verse is in the recognition of Allah’s will and wish. Those promised Paradise are patient in times of calamity.

[8] Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, pp. 1-3, no. 1. The complete English text of the hadeeth is as follows:
Aboo Hurayrah related that on one occasion while they were sitting with the Messenger of Allah, he said to them, “Ask me anything,” but they were too overawed out of profound respect to ask him anything. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab said, “While we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) a man came among us whose clothes were exceedingly white and whose hair was jet black. No signs of journeying were to be seen on him and none of us knew him. He walked up and sat down by the Prophet (Peace be upon him). Resting his knees against his and placing the palms of his hands on his thighs, he said: O Muhammad, tell me about Islam. The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: Islam is to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to perform the prayers, to pay the zakaah, to fast in Ramadaan, and to make the pilgrimage to the House if you are able to do so. He said: You have spoken rightly, and we were amazed at him asking him and saying that he had spoken rightly. He said: Then tell me about eemaan. He said: It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day, and to believe in divine destiny, both the good and the evil thereof. He said: You have spoken rightly. He said: Then tell me about ihsaan. He said: It is to worship Allah as though you are seeing Him, and while you see Him not yet truly He sees you. He said: Then tell me about the Hour. He said: The one questioned about it knows no better than the questioner. He said: Then tell me about its signs. He said: That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress 8 and that you will see the barefooted, naked, destitute herdsmen competing in constructing lofty buildings. Then he took himself off and I stayed for a time. Then he said: O ‘Umar, do you know who the questioner was? I said: Allah and His Messenger know best. He said: It was Gabriel, who came to you to teach you your religion.”

[9] Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 3, p. 1317, no. 4682 and Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol. 1, pp. 44-6, no. 77 and authenticated in Saheeh al-Jaami‘ as-Sagheer, no. 5130. The complete text from Sunan Abee Daawood is as follows:
Ibn ad-Daylamee said: I went to Ubayy ibn Ka‘b and said to him, “Some doubt about Qadar has occurred in my mind, so relate something to me, that perhaps Allah will remove it from my heart.” He said to me, “If Allah punished the people of the heavens and earth; He would not do any wrong to them. If He had mercy on them, His mercy would be better for them than their deeds. And if you spent in the cause of Allah the *****alent of Mount Uhud in gold, Allah would not accept it from you until you believe in Qadar and know that what has befallen you was never going to miss you, and that which missed you was never going to befall you and if you died believing other than this, you would enter the fire.” Then I went to ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas‘ood and he said something similar to that and I went to Huthayfah ibn al-Yamaan and he also said something similar. Then I went to Zayd ibn Thaabit and he narrated to me from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) something similar to that.
Jaabir ibn ‘Abdillaah also reported that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “No servant of Allah will truly believe until he believes in the good and evil of Qadar and until he knows that what has befallen him could not have missed him, and what missed him could not have befallen him.” (Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmithee, no. 1743 and Silsalah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah, no. 2439)

[10] Sahih Muslim, vol. 4, p. 1401, no. 6441. The complete text is as follows:
Aboo Hurayrah related that Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “A strong believer is better and more loved by Allah than a weak believer, but there is good in both. Cherish what benefits you and seek help from Allah and do not lose heart. And if anything befalls you, do not say: ‘If only I had done this, such and such would have happened.’ Instead say, ‘It is the decree of Allah and He does whatever He wills.’ For ‘if’ surely opens the door for Satan’s work.”

[11] Sahih Muslim, vol. 4, p. 1397, no. 6419, The complete text is as follows:
Taawoos reported: I met some people from Allah’s Messenger’s companions who said, “Everything is by Qadar,” and I heard ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar quote Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying, “Everything is by Qadar, even inability and capability [or capability and inability].”



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